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Find out what medication is right for you.

I won’t encourage anyone with schizophrenia/schizoaffective type disorder by saying invega is the one for you. Nope. Nor will I say abilify is the right booster for treating low moods in either schizophrenia or depression is the one for you, either. Personally, in my case, abilify is working for me. That alone doesn’t mean it is for every schizophrenic.

When a schizophrenic is first diagnosed with that condition, he/she might be prescribed invega sustena on the injection site at the clinic, depending what the patient’s doctor feels he/she should be on at first. If you are also a person who is inflicted with what I have, you might of been given a shot of invega sustena on monthly basis for a length of time until your doctor switches from that to another, right?

When under psychiatric medication, you will notice a switch of mood behavior from the “zombie” feeling at first, then “lethargy” mixed. “Anxiety” might set in. This is normal since you’re in trauma from schizophrenia and plus the side effects.

Also, bear in mind, you may notice weight gain –that is also common in such medication. Weight gain from antipsychotics can reach from 30 lbs to 100 lbs the most. If that occurs, address it to your health care provider. These type of medications does increase appetite.  Try avoiding eating foods with a lot of carbohydrates; eating cereal every morning has also carbs, so try not start off every day with cereal. Eat an boiled egg minus the yolk, not every day though. Drink enough water cause’ medication does also make your mouth dry. Exercise up to 30 minutes per day to keep you motivated even when you feel zonked; it will increase your endorphine levels. 😀

In addition, your health care provider will issue a complete blood panel test for you to be done at a blood lab at the local clinic to find out if the medication you’re taking is increasing your A1C, glucose and prolactin levels. If these test results are high, you’re health care provider will discuss  to you whether to decrease the dosage or switch to another medication. You’ll like be prescribed metformin if the A1C test is above 6; glucose is above 100 meaning patient is pre-diabetic. Metaformin is used to control elevated blood sugar.

Everyone with mental illness has different needs and  address their condition to their health care provider, therapist and psychiatrist. Find out what medication is right for you. There are a lot of first and second generation antipsychotic medication out there in the pharmacies in which your doctor might be able to prescribe which one suites you.

Have a great Friday and enjoy your weekend. Be back next week. Till then, roll in with the punches!

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Bipolar documentaries.

In the U.S., roughly 5.7 million people have bipolar

Pulled out of youtube, I chose to post up a few of the bipolar documentaries. I’ve never knew how it is to undergo manic states of biopolar. Just like schizophrenia, studies show, biopolar is inherited through genes. In a way, the two are nearly identical- thoughts racing in the mind, and in depressive state – the lows as like in schizophrenia, and in  both – are in the state of psychosis. The way how the people described in these videos is always on the go, non-step as though the person in the manic episode can drive into high states of euphoria.  Anyone going thru bipolar are welcome to comment.

 

 

 

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What it’s like to take care of yourself in the first stages of schizophrenia.

At first when I was diagnosed with acute paranoid schizophrenia, I was literally zonked out for nearly a entire month; the feeling was that of a heavy weight contender going head to head with the reigning champion in a full 15 round bout. Getting a massive KO, down for the count, never to recover for a long period of time, you know. I went through a time of shock!  I had a hard time getting sleep, voices were disrupting; though I was given a invega sustena shot. A dark cloud loomed over me when I was lacking sleep with the loud voices crackling from above. Did I loose a significant amount  a lot of weight, couldn’t eat that much except a few tablespoons of soup and a few crackers. As for taking care of my hygenic care, It was a double edge sword – lack of taking a shower, neglecting my oral hygeine until I got a push from my therapist saying “wouldn’t you feel better if you went to your dentist?” instead of telling me in a condescending manner, “you reek like ****. Go and take a shower, and brush your teeth buddy!” During that time, my relative took care of me for 4 weeks, literally, and encouraged me on a monthly basis to go to my behavioral health department so that I can receive my monthly invega shots. Dark circles, as I mentioned in an early blog entry(Schizophrenia, a journey into world of madness),  were under my eyes.  In between 2 days a week exercising. I had to get a push to get back into shape. I had poor insight- anosognesia– then. Now these days I have good insight sharing it with my shrink.

Hope this helps to others who are in their first stages of their illness. My suggestion for you who is not receiving help….do so! Your loved ones. Your friends are there to help you.  If you are in the first process of seeking a health care professional – an psychiatrist – an therapist – and given medication…mind your meds! Don’t toss them in the garbage because it doesn’t work right away at first. These antipsychotic pills do work. Give it time to kick in your system so you will get better; it will all work out. Take it from me. I’ve been there before.

Take Care!

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Close call last night at Wrigley Field.

For my SF Giants that is, only to lose to the Chicago Cubs, 12-11.  The Giants are 63-64 as of today, five games behind the first place Washington Nationals in the NL Wild-Card race, still over a month to play.  As of last night – San Francisco has a total of 141 home runs as a team so far in the 2019 MLB season; their most since the 2010 Giants.

https://www.sfchronicle.com/giants/article/Giants-offense-awakens-but-Cubs-outslug-S-F-14369458.php

Next game starts today  at 11:20 A.M PST on KNBR 680 and NBCBAS (check your local cable provider for channel in your region).

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What I need to know about autism.

After watching the 1988 film “Rain Man” for the first time, back then, there was not to much interest for myself why I wanted to know about autism. Not to sound careless, because I do sympathize with others who are disabled. What did I know back in 1988 about mental disabilities even with a then high school education background about autism? Only that I only met a neighbor of mine who was autistic, yet, did not understand what she went through.

So after watching that film again, only on DVD format in recent time, I wanted to know about what is autism. Dustin Hoffman who played the role of Raymond Babbit, an autistic savant, did seem to give out a outstanding performance of a person afflicted with autism.  But how accurate is “Rain Man” dealing with this issue?  I found out in recent years ‘Raymond’ was actually inspired by a savant genius by the name of Kim Peek, who without little or no effort to complete intellectual tasks that an ordinary person would do. I do get the drift.

Recently I went to the local library and checked out a book on Autism Spectrum Disorder aka ASD. There was a recent book published as of last year, 2018, entitled “AUTISM: THE MOVEMENT  – SENSING PERSPECTIVE” by Elizabeth B. Torres and Caroline Whyatt along with a list of scientific contributors for that lengthy book. Most of the book was full of scientific jargon – physics, engineering and applied mathematics…poses questions regarding the concept and approach to the study of autism.

The book entirely I read, it was difficult because most of the jargon applied. Saying that, I only have a  second year of college semester; should of taken a course in psychology then. *sighs* Anyways. I found doing research online helps these days with such a subject – autism spectrum disorder.  I’m old school using the phrase “Super information highway” that was used over 20 years ago for old timers like me. Not.

Upon using the incredible super information highway aka internet with the click of a mouse button, I typed in ‘what is autism?’  Linked to this address: https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism   I hit the hyper-link indicators of autism

Did I find out information on autism. Some infants show hints (of autism) in their first months. For other the behavior becomes obvious of the ages of 2-3 years old. Interesting, hmm. And that was on the learn the signs webpage.

One of reasons why I should know about autism, is because I am interested, first. Second, during the time I was diagnosed with acute paranoid schizophrenia, somewhere along the line, I was totally combined  misdiagnosed with autism spectrum disorder also, until the second time around my shrink eliminated that during a routine follow-up. Third and most, at NAMI connections, my facilitator recommended me in the distant future, in which I should be able to get much better, is to become a facilitator to autistic children. Take courses and such to reach that goal, If I am to be determine to meet that.

Just a recommendation to this author by a NAMI facilitator.

BTW, in my collection of DVD/BLU-RAY movies is the 1997 political thriller with Bruce Willis “MERCURY RISING” ; in the plot,  ‘Simon’, a 9-year old child with autism breaks a sophisticated NSA code via code book available to the public.  Tough guy, FBI rogue agent Art Jefferies(Bruce Willis) protecting Simon from hitmen sent by the NSA director to silence Simon.  The movie I’ll re-watch it to find out if Miko Hughes, portraying Simon, did the behavior and movements of an autistic child would do, accurately . Then again, what do I really know about it.  Go back and some more researching, talking to local parents of autism, and getting to know more -from observing an autistic individual.

 

 

 

 

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Life of a schizophrenic.

Image may contain: 1 person, tree, outdoor and closeup

Every day is a struggle. I learn to adjust and adapt to the illness; accept whatever Yaweh has in store for me, though, He did not made me this way, for I see this more and more, I found strength, became resilient in time.

Most days I feel the effects of negative symptoms, feeling lethargy, sleepiness, at times- lack of motivation, seemingly depressive ;(  With the help of my latest booster – abilify – I get some energy to do things, like do a few hours of cleaning up my bedroom; some yard work accomplished; blogging; reading a book( my latest read “Surviving Schizophrenia”); taking care of my hygiene such as taking a shower every day for the past 30 days. Don’t forget to brush and floss as well. 🙂

Almost all the positive symptoms – delusions; visual and auditory hallucinations; thought broadcasting- the so-called real picking up of my thoughts via others and vise-versa are just about 99% diminished; I do have a slight remaining of paranoia, just not as severe as years ago, which is a good thing, as long it doesn’t starts to become persistent. YIKES!

LIFE’S TASK FOR ME – take chances. Follow my heart. Be inspired. Be happy. Fall in love. Be good to myself and others. Be silly now and then; etc, etc…there is many more.  I hope my readers who also have mental illness will also do the same. I want you to be happy!

 

 

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Sensitive movie about mental illness.

 

This 1987 film “Strange Voices” is about a young woman, Nicole (Nancy McKeon), in her prime, entering as a college student with dreams and expectations, suddenly acts strangely at first, then after, starts hearing voices as in thought broadcasting, people are hearing her own very thoughts as well, as “commanding voices” telling her what to do.

Not only does the illness affect her, but also her family as well.

A well scripted movie  informative about the issue without being condescending. The acting was flawless showing what most people can relate to.  The actress who potrays Nicole’s mother(Valerie Harper) did a real great job acting; you can feel her pain, also; she blames herself for her daughter’s schizophrenic behavior.

This movie was a real tear-jerker for me, as I am one in 100 individuals who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia; in fairness, 1 out of 5 people  suffer from a form of mental illness other than schizophrenia.

That being said, I would definitely recommend this film to anyone who wants a real good movie to watch. Great film!

 

 

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Every time the organ starts playing @ mass, this song comes in mind! Far out!

An total eargasm.  Entirely in the original 17:05 format, “In A Gadda Da Vida” pretty much defines “Iron” and “Butterfly”, meaning “heavy” + “psyche”(butterfly – in ancient times, a metaphor=the soul/psyche), thus forming, at least, one of  the earliest sounds of heavy metal, acid rock, which is what made Iron Butterfly, the band, one of the pioneers to develop such a psychedelic + progressive rock + acid rock sound to the genre, and this was back in 1967, in the distant time before  the arrival of Uriah Heep, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath.

 

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Woodstock festival, Day 3.

August 17th, 1969.  This is just part of the last day, for there were many in the lineup.

Well! officially this first video on here was the end of day 2, entering day 3 for Creedence Clearwater who began at 12:30 A.M., August 17,1969.

 

We can’t forget the legendary Joe Cocker. “Let’s go get stoned.” RIP my friend.

 

If there was an great guitar performance in the 3 days of Woodstock 69′ other than Santana and Jimi Hendrix, it is from the late Alvin Lee from Ten Years After.

 

And the final performer:  the one and only, and perhaps “one of the great innovators of the guitar”, breaking the limits of playing the instrument – Jim Hendrix- here playing “Voodoo Child.”

 

 

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First hypnagogic sleep paralysis episode, 1986.

‘‘I sleep … two or three hours perhaps—then
a dream, no a nightmare lays hold on me’’ … I feel that I am in
bed and asleep … and I also feel that someone is coming close to
me, looking at me, touching at me, coming onto my bed, is kneeling
on my chest, tracing my neck between his hands and squeezing it” –
Guy de Maupassant, The Horla. 

 

Sleep Paralysis in a isolated form isn’t exactly a dream,though
a dream like imagery. The brainwaves during sleep and awake is
nearly identical. I had mention on a earlier post “hypnopompic” is
the transition between sleep and being awake. From what I learned,
in neuroscience years ago, between both terms:

“Hynopompic” derives from the greek word ‘pompe'(act of
sending) “coined” by psychologist named Myer to describe similar
hallucinations in the transition between sleep and awakening.

“Hypnagogic (or a alternate term-hypnogogic) from the
term ‘hypno'(asleep) and ‘agogos’ (induced) was coined by a
psychologist named Maury in the same year,in term of describing some
unusual illusions upon of asleep.

Around some 20 years ago, and once in a great while, I did feel
some weakness of the limbs ,and a slight jerk of the head and FOP
(feeling of presence) as some outlined shape illusion tackled me on
top of my bed,as I awoke..it was resembled like that bizarre
creature from the movie ‘Predator’ where it blending in the
surrounding environment ,except it is usually in fuzzy/murky
color,and semi-shaped.

Summer 1986

The weather outside was a unbearable 103 degrees. The steam of
humidity flowed throughout the June summer sky that could put anyone
in a cranky mood,craving for a swim at the pool. I felt like taking
a long nap. Summer break just started over a few days ago. I might
as well start enjoying the rest of the next 11 weeks. Freakin’ A
man. One problem though. Our house at this time wasn’t equipped with
a electrical wall build in air conditioner. The only oscillating
form of air we had in our family was 5 adjustable floor stand air
fans. It was a weekday afternoon as “Leave It to Beaver” reruns was
airing on FOX 40 at 12:00 P.M,on my 12 inch television in my
bedroom. With the fan still running,I had my shorts and t-shirt on
while I was laying upon my bed.

I just remember dozing off from the intense heat reflecting of the
single pane window across the room. Heavy my eyelids closed. I just
remember that by the time I had a sensation of drifting off to
dreamland and in between of remembering falling asleep. A loss of
muscle tone that I knew of myself as getting this “inability” to
move as though I would describe as being pulled down with a heavy
sheet by two people each side of the bed and one would be getting
another sheet and placing it over my face suppressing my attempted
sound to plea for help.

My mouth had this yucky dry sensation for air. I had to breathe in
panic that produced this suffocating feeling. The more I tried to
manage to breathe sucking in and out the warm sheet over my entire
face, the faster my heart was accelerating. I could feel the panic
vividly. I just felt dehydrated and the fact I was under such
immobility.

The first and only thing I did was made a mental image first hand
after a minute , I timed, was to wiggle my digitis of my fingers. In
science class,the sensation the brain can pick up relaying messages
is through the sensory touch by any part of the body,one including
the fingers,that sends out receptory messages back to the brain. So
I stopped the panic sensation and let my concentration by allowing
my fingers to the talking. My mouth was starting to ease making it
easier for me to breathe. A cool breeze feeling was coming my way.

Just when I began slightly to move if much as possible towards
upwards,this whole sensation of being to mobilize myself once again
restored me back feeling better. I wasn’t pinned down by a sheet
after all,as in this recent paralyzed state. I had rested upon the
entire bed. However,I did feel strange afterwards as though I had
something wrong with me physically;  I didn’t feel ill emotionally at
this time. What was it that I could be suffering from,that I myself
didn’t even know what to call it. Years later on I heard of a
sleeping disorder called sleep apnea in school. The symptoms was
choking ,gasping for air while the patient slept. And the biggest
effect for an apneaic sufferer is excessive daytime sleepiness
caused by a oxygen deprived brain—effecting mood behavior. The
only thing that was similar to my what ever I developed to that of
obstructive sleep apnea was the insufficient to breath,yet my
paralysis episode while sleeping on my back was “having the hard
time to breathe” rather than being literally suffocated by a
collapsed air passage.

It was in 2000 when I first had a internet system installed in my
home that I began to do researching on what I long waited to see
what sleeping disorder that I was experiencing. I typed on
yahoo: ‘When I wake up I can’t move,what is it?’. The search engine
came up with an rather interesting info on a link that mentions
during REM sleep the body is normally paralyzed to prevent the human
from acting out his dreams to unintentionally harming himself or
others. When a person perceives as being paralyzed during a dream
but can’t wake up it is called awake sleep paralysis. It goes on to
say that this is normal. Normal? How can what I experience to be as
normal. The sleep brain -REM is not yet completed during this sudden
transition into waking up still in a semi-dream state.

In other words: The body is still asleep, but the mind is awake. The
popular term to call this phenomenon is sleep paralysis. But wait.
Sleep Paralysis is basically normal,right? What this should of been
called is awareness/sleep paralysis due to knowing that you can’t
move during a incomplete REM state. That is according to sleep
specialists have studied.

That hot summer day in 1986 was the very first time I experienced
going to sleep onset and being aware that my brain is entering REM
sleep,but my body should catch up with my brain. I recall being
paralyzed during in my classroom the same year when school resumed.
It was during math class. To make it short as possible, I was totally
exhausted and laid my head down against the desk. It was a short
nap, then waking up I was frozen –paralyzed. I could hear the
students around me chatting and walking. They probably didn’t care
if I was sleeping. It happens to half of the students in school.
Then I felt a cold hand touching the surface of my bare skin hands.
That produced a shock to me, waking me up. Nobody was there to wake
me up. Strange however.

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Woodstock festival.

Day 2: Carlos Santana. This is what I picked up on from the Woodstock ’69 Archive.  Something about congas and bass, with guitar that go hand in hand. This is a blend of Latin, Afro-Carribean sound and rock elements. SOUL SACRIFICE! Viva Carlos Santana!

 

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Soulfly – “Back To The Primitive” video.

Max Cavalera, former lead man and guitarist, of the Brazilian Thrash Metal band – Sepultura- founded spiritualism, roots of how primitive music should sound with bongo drums and heavy metal. It is like both guitar and bongos go hand in hand in this genre of metal.  I first listened to Sepultura way back in the day starting with “Beneath The Remains”, and since then, always digged out the Brazilian band! One of my top 10 bands. These guys define the word “jammin”!  Here is Max’s band, Soulfly!  BACK TO THE PRIMITIVE!

 

 

 

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How Law Enforcement are using algorithms to predict crimes.

Yes!! There is such a Pre-crime experiment that went underway years ago way before these current mass shootings came to be. You might ask, “why didn’t this intervention method was used in El Paso and Dayton??” That is a question I had asked myself, recently.
The way how police departments is to intervene before an act of a crime was to occur is using what is called algorithms, the type of data base computer technology that predicts crimes before they happen. In 2013, the program all started with giving out 300 would-be perpetrators who would carry out an violent attack on citizens. So I wouldn’t say “Minority Report is just an exaggeration” as said by many. The future is today!

 

 

 

 

 

 

With all the shootings in the Windy City, an  pre-crime establishment in Chicago would do nicely.

 

 

 

 

AI facial technology banned in San Francisco,CA. If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to fear, why dead set against it??  One side claims it is a violation of civil rights; the other defends the idea, saying it is good for the better, for our protection. Bear in mind before labeling this whole pre-crime ideology as racial profiling, the cops are out in the streets, quote “To Protect And To  Serve.” Police State? I don’t think so!

 

https://www.wired.com/story/san-francisco-bans-use-facial-recognition-tech/

 

And today’s SF Chronicle. August 13, 2019

Facial recognition misidentified 26 California lawmakers as criminal suspects

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sleep paralysis schizophrenia related

Was my experience with sleep paralysis trigger of my bouts with paranoid schizophrenia? I’ve questioned it. SP with those visual and audio hallucinations are a thing of when you wake up and unable to move or utter out a word, that is called hypnopompic sleep paralysis. I know that for a fact. Visual and audio hallucinations as I know also are part of mental illness with people with psychosis. What I can conclude is SP with those hallucinations are just about normal; for what I know is people with SP live out ordinary lives, are not insane.  I asked both my PCP and shrink if SP could of triggered off symptoms of schizophrenia?  They both didn’t provide a definite answer, “could of” and “maybe” I was told. My shrink added “use your extremities” as saying wiggling my hands and feet, limbs and trunks, when being immobilized during SP, along this technique to break off the Sleep Paralysis episodes.

Recently I google searched “sleep paralysis schizophrenia related” on the internet.  One of the questions people asked:

The other symptoms of Narcolepsy-Cataplexy syndrome, daytime drowsiness, cataplexy, and sleep attacks are rather distinctive and less likely to lead to a suspicion of psychosis. Thus, it is possible that in schizophrenia, some delusional thinking may have been triggered by SP/HH if at all patients experienced them.  
 
So it is possible that delusional thinking may have been triggered by SP?  On this site:

Isolated sleep paralysis and hypnic hallucinations in schizophrenia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711239/  concluded that people with HH(hypnopompic hallucinations) in psychosis should be inquired and should be thought as differential and “no conflict of interest.”

 

 concluded,” Finally, it would be important to increase awareness and improve management of sleep disturbances in schizophrenia patients, which could in turn significantly improve the quality of life of individuals affected by this devastating mental illness.”
Until there is a groundbreaking research, in time to come, we will probably never have the answer to the mind-boggling $50,000 question: Is sleep paralysis related to schizophrenia?

 

 

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A spirit of a dead girl in a mine shaft?

It was nearly 28 years ago when I was walking up this hill that is located outside my former work place. It is about over a hundred yards from the shed to this concealed mine shaft. The canal nearby was completely empty. At that time, it was almost 5 P.M., just one day after Christmas that I was curious how it looked up real close when I thought my mind was playing tricks on me. I could hear a little girl moaning ,”help me” from inside this location. In response I automatically yelled, ” Hello?!” without any clear conscious of why I would do a such thing. “Somebody help me…Mommy! ” followed by  a sob. ‘What the heck’ I thought. I thought I was going insane by listening to something that at first wasn’t there. So I walked away and tried to shake the shouting from my head. I thought for sure if it didn’t go away, I may of went mad. The further I walked away the more girlish yelling I could hear. Then I walked back towards the mine shaft and suddenly the sobbing became gentile. I became scarce that maybe there was a ghost of a girl who could of very well fell in it. Then this voice said, “I’m going to tell my mommy you hurt me.” A aggressive sound of tantrum erupted so I decided this whole thing was inside my head because this had to be a fragment of my imagination.

The next day I went to those scan projectors at the local library where somebody could look for a old newspaper article for a missing girl in my area. There was a handful of missing girls for so many months and years in the entire tri-valley region. It was 1991, and in the 1980’s there was so many girls who was declared missing, abducted and ended up murdered for some. To me at the time that a missing girl from Antioch in 1983 seven years earlier was abducted around Thanksgiving and found dead near a dump site outside the city. Her name was Angela Bugay; she lived in a neighborhood that is almost parallel to a canal. By coincidence, the voice I heard was just near a canal but in a different location which isn’t really that far, because Brentwood(where I lived and worked) and Antioch(the city where the murdered girl lived) is about 10 minutes from each other. The eerie feeling that perhaps one of these girls could of been held against her will by a elusive killer who left her for dead in this mine shaft. The shaft I should mention wasn’t concealed until sometime during the 80’s. Could it be possible that what I heard that day was a spirit of a dead girl as what I heard, “I’m going to tell mommy you hurt me?” If it was foul play, then the killer was very familiar with the location. There could be a serial child abductor who lived in Brentwood. The mine shaft, as of the past two decades, had been totally torn down due to housing development in that area. Nobody else who worked at the irrigation district along 730 Concord Avenue in Brentwood,CA 94513, had ever reported hearing, or, seeing anything that was deemed as a ghost shouting or a sighting, except myself. If anybody besides me who heard what I heard probably never told about it out of fear. There is no other explanation why this girl would say of what she said.

https://www.google.com/maps/place/730+Concord+Ave/@37.9124005,-121.7352636,17z/data=!4m6!3m5!1s0x808ff95ae7970f09:0xcd113448b2a61728!4b1!8m2!3d37.9124005!4d-121.7331715

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Abstract report: conception on ‘Schizophrenia’ term replaced by “psychosis spectrum disorder.”

The slow death of the concept of schizophrenia and the painful birth of the psychosis spectrum

Abstract

The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything ‘psychotic’ is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled ‘ultra-high risk’ (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome – within and between individuals – hampers research and recovery-oriented practice. ‘Psychosis’ remains firmly associated with ‘schizophrenia’, as evidenced by a vigorous stream of high-impact but non-replicable attempts to ‘reverse-engineer’ the hypothesized biological disease entity, using case–control paradigms that cannot distinguish between risk for illness onset and risk for poor outcome. In this paper, the main issues surrounding the concept of schizophrenia are described. We tentatively conclude that with the advent of broad spectrum phenotypes covering autism and addiction in DSM5, the prospect for introducing a psychosis spectrum disorder – and modernizing psychiatry – appears to be within reach.

Ever since its conception, ‘schizophrenia’ has been an ‘essentially contested concept’ (Geekie & Read, 2009). Debates at (European) mental health conferences invariably end with around 50% in favour of abandoning the term, and 50% in favour of the status quo. This divide has become the implicit hallmark of academic psychiatry: a science in search of solid data to back up its early 20th century nosological outlook on mental variation. For decades, biological approaches have been tested in an attempt to essentially ‘reverse-engineer’ the hypothesized disease entity, using the classical case–control comparison. However, despite many claims of success (‘genes for schizophrenia’, ‘cognitive illness’, ‘brain disease’), biological findings in psychiatry, whilst fascinating, are fuzzy and unreliable (Ioannidis, 2005), and do not suggest categorical distinctions (Kapur et al. 2012).

Schizophrenia represents the 30% poor outcome of a much broader spectrum of psychotic disorders (Perala et al. 2007). It is at least 10 times more researched than the other 70% of the clinical psychosis spectrum (van Os, 2016) and basically has come to represent everything ‘psychotic’ – even those with subtle experiences of psychosis in the context of anxiety and depression, said to be at ‘Ultra High Risk’ (of schizophrenia) (Van Os & Guloksuz, 2017).

The question that we – prudently and constructively – attempt to address in this article is: should psychiatry continue to look at human variation through the ‘schizo’-prism, as embedded in major classification systems, or can an alternative case be made that makes more sense, both in clinical practice and in research?

The devolution of the concept of schizophrenia

‘We stand atop a long tradition of clinical descriptive research and ‘authority-based’ diagnostic systems, in which, in the struggle for dominance of psychiatric nosologies, the most famous and articulate professor won.’ (Kendler, 2016b ).

The concept of schizophrenia has – not – evolved since Kraepelin coined the term ‘dementia praecox’ about a century ago. Kraepelin first conceptualized dementia praecox and manic-depressive psychosis as two distinct natural disease entities; Bleuler later introduced the term ‘schizophrenia’ for the first time in his monograph: ‘Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias’ (Jablensky, 2010). Based on his extensive clinical work with patients, Bleuler challenged the gloomy viewpoint of dementia praecox: Progressive deterioration to dementia and early onset were neither exclusive nor uniform to justify a discrete disease category. In contrast to Kraepelin’s narrow perspective of dementia praecox, limited to the most severe clinical representation, he adopted a much broader approach that expanded the boundaries of schizophrenia to incorporate a continuum phenotype from latent schizotypy and schizophrenia (Jablensky, 2010). Early efforts to classifying mental disorders in the USA – largely influenced by the mainstream psychoanalytical formulation – embraced Bleuler’s broad and more psychologically-oriented concept of schizophrenia until the release of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) (Andreasen, 1989). The DSM-III, preceding endeavours to increase the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses in research, e.g. the Research Diagnostic Criteria and Feighner Criteria, introduced a ‘mutated’ Kraepelinian diagnostic practice that was substantially influenced by Langfeldt’s poor outcome schizophrenia theory and Schneider’s first rank symptoms. One of the main driving forces for the neo-Kraepelinian movement was the disappointment with low reliability hindering collaborative research efforts (Dutta et al. 2007). The widespread use of antipsychotics with serious – sometimes irreversible and even life-threatening – side effects also necessitated this narrow diagnostic convention to improve the risk–benefit ratio of antipsychotics by limiting the treatment to the most severe and chronic manifestations of illness (Andreasen, 1989). This progressive movement – cutting all ties with psychoanalysis and emphasizing the importance of psychiatric nosology akin to European practice – were welcomed across the pond (Murray, 1979). However, this revolution in psychiatry, like other radical shifts in history, has subsequently evolved into a dogma per se that ignores all criticisms. Sailing before the wind of biological psychiatry, data of which are applied in attempts to reverse-engineer the narrow concept of schizophrenia, seeded first in the USA, has dominated the field over the last 40 years (Dutta et al. 2007).

The outcome bias

‘Schizophrenia is heterogeneous. Some patients with the disorder do well at follow-up and should not, for this alone, be regarded as misdiagnosed.’ (McGlashan, 1988)

Robins and Guze (pioneers of the DSM-III) concluded: ‘good prognosis “schizophrenia” is not mild schizophrenia, but a different illness’ (Robins & Guze, 1970). However, evidence suggests that the schizophrenia construct is subject to Berkson’s bias, which is a specific type of selection bias that occurs when the research sample is limited to help-seeking populations, particularly when the research is carried out at specialized tertiary centres. The restrictive construct of schizophrenia, particularly emphasizing chronicity and deterioration, filters out less severe cases with good prognosis and leads to morbidity concentration (Cohen & Cohen, 1984) (Fig. 1). This ‘enriched’ sample of severely ill patients with poor outcome represents only a fraction of the broader phenotype that includes a variety of psychosis spectrum diagnostic categories such as schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder and so on (Perala et al. 2007). Prospective studies of patients with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia indicate a vast amount of outcome heterogeneity within and between patients (Harding et al. 1987; Allardyce & van Os, 2010). Patients with better outcome either never enter, or eventually drop out of mental health care: They either recover and do not necessitate mental health treatment or display a favourable illness course and thus no longer fit into the schizophrenia definition per current classification systems.

Fig. 1. Depicts the morbidity concentration in an inception cohort of first episode psychosis over a period. The relative balance between poor (red), intermediate (yellow) and favourable outcome (green) shifts towards poor outcome as a fraction of the patients with favourable outcome (green) either recover or no longer meet diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia (blue).

Thus, the biased cluster of diagnosed help-seeking patients shares similarities that are discretely associated with poor outcome but are not necessarily expressed across the whole phenotypic spectrum (van Os et al. 1997; Zipursky et al. 2013). Researchers searching for indices of deterioration, akin to Kraepelin’s dementia praecox, may have failed to demonstrate such neurodegeneration, but their remarks – albeit within a different context – were accurate: ‘The ‘true’ natural history of an illness cannot be determined from studies in treated populations’ (Waddington et al. 1997).

Considering major advances in mental health care, a linear increase in good outcome would logically be anticipated. However, a meta-analysis of outcome studies of schizophrenia in the last century demonstrated that a biphasic pattern exists, not as a function of improvement in treatment but as a function of diagnostic trends (Hegarty et al. 1994). The steady rising trend in the proportion of patients with a favourable outcome, which saw a remarkable twofold increase to around 50% after the introduction of antipsychotics in the 1950s and 1960s, came to an end after the 1970s when the broad definition of schizophrenia was replaced with stringent diagnostic criteria, initiating a downward trend, with a drop of 15% by 1990 (Hegarty et al. 1994). Findings indicate that the narrow definition of schizophrenia is significantly associated with a decline in the rates of patients with a favourable outcome (McGlashan, 1988). Studies using the Kraepelinian diagnostic systems also found lower but not statistically significant recovery estimates in comparison to non-Kraepelinian samples (median of 9% v. 12.5%) (Jaaskelainen et al. 2013). Contrary to expectations, more recent findings from the 10-year follow-up of the Suffolk County Mental Health Project cohort showed no significant improvement in the rate of favourable outcome compared with those in previous samples (Bromet et al. 2005). The investigators argued that the lack of progress might be attributed to the nosological switch from the broader schizophrenia concept in DSM-II to a narrowly defined chronic schizophrenia in DSM-III, as well as the influence of Berkson’s bias.

Inclusiveness of diagnostic criteria appears to be a significant confounder in studies of predictors for outcome, such as in the case of the higher male/female ratio in patients with an unfavourable outcome as a function of more restrictive diagnostic systems (Castle et al. 1993). Similarly, enriched samples of poor outcome spuriously find a more co-occurrence of positive and negative symptom domains, thus creating a false conception of a distinct illness, when in fact an inflated rate of concurrence has been the individual contribution of each dimension to help-seeking behaviour (Maric et al. 2004).

Meta-analyses report that male sex is associated with a 1.3–1.5-fold increase in the risk of developing schizophrenia (Aleman et al. 2003; McGrath et al. 2004). Similar to the outcome bias, the sex difference in incidence rates were significantly higher in studies with samples collected in the post-DSM-III era compared with those collected prior to 1980 (Aleman et al. 2003) – apparently as a result of the use of more stringent diagnostic criteria (Lewine et al. 1984; Castle et al. 1993; Beauchamp & Gagnon, 2004). Conversely, no statistically significant sex difference exists in prevalence estimates of schizophrenia (Saha et al. 2005; Perala et al. 2007). Aside from methodological issues (Saha et al. 2008), the ebb of male preponderance in prevalence estimates, contrasting with comparable incidence rates, could be interpreted with two propositions: (i) Male sex predicts both development of schizophrenia and either better outcome or greater illness-related mortality during the course. However, evidence indicates no sex-difference in standardized mortality ratios (Saha et al. 2007) and better outcome in women diagnosed with schizophrenia (Abel et al. 2010). (ii) Clinicians, guided by diagnostic manuals with rigid criteria, erroneously tend to overdiagnose schizophrenia in males at first contact. With this discussion, our aim was not to disentangle this paradox but to prompt researchers about how different definitions can dramatically influence even basic demographic and epidemiological parameters underlying a disease concept.

Psychosis continuum

Modern classification systems, embracing a polythetic approach, categorize schizophrenia and related disorders based on different combinations of a required number of symptom domains that exceed the operational threshold of severity. This taxonomy implies a point of rarity, a unique phenotype with precise boundaries. However, a systematic review of taxometric research on schizophrenia concluded that studies favouring a categorical construct over a single distribution model were heavily influenced by a variety of methodological issues endangering the external and the internal validity (Linscott et al. 2010).

Consecutive meta-analyses of modern epidemiological data further suggest that psychosis expression is not an all-or-none phenomenon, but, in fact, phenomenologically and temporally continuous across the general population, with prevalence rates of subthreshold states varying from around 5% (delimited to interview-based reporting) to 8% (including self-report estimates) and incidence rates of 2.5% (van Os et al. 2009; Linscott & van Os, 2013). With regard to temporal continuity, psychotic experiences at a subclinical level in adolescence and early adulthood have some predictive value for psychotic disorders and also, to a lesser degree, for non-psychotic disorders, but mainly for a more severe psychopathology: functional impairment, violence and suicide (Poulton et al. 2000; Hanssen et al. 2005; Rossler et al. 2007; Dominguez et al. 2010, 2011; Saha et al. 2011; Kaymaz et al. 2012; Kelleher et al. 2012; Werbeloff et al. 2012; Sharifi et al. 2015; Honings et al. 2016a , b ). Recent findings from World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys showing bidirectional temporal associations between positive psychotic experiences and a broad spectrum of non-psychotic mental disorders concur with the notion that subtle psychosis expression is transdiagnostic (McGrath et al. 2016).

Psychotic experiences are generally (almost over three-fourths) transient (Hanssen et al. 2005; Cougnard et al. 2007). However, the likelihood of later psychopathology that requires professional care increases as a function of the additive interaction between subthreshold expression of multiple psychotic symptom domains – for example, the co-occurrence of hallucinations and delusions predicts higher psychopathology load and greater severity (Smeets et al. 2012; Nuevo et al. 2013; Smeets et al. 2013). Similarly, the greater the admixture with affective disturbance (Hanssen et al. 2005) or motivational impairments (Dominguez et al. 2010), the greater the risk of psychotic disorder in the future. The presence of psychosis can thus be considered as a marker for more severe psychopathology that negatively impacts outcome. To what degree psychosis itself, rather than the severity of the mixed psychopathological states it forms a part of, causally impacts outcome remains uncertain.

Evidence that environmental and genetic load are shared across clinical and subthreshold psychotic phenomena lend further support for aetiological continuity and provides us with a framework to dissect diverse paths from transitory psychotic experiences to persistent psychosis expression and subsequent need for care. Studies have shown that genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk factors (trauma, urban environment, cannabis, etc.) synergistically increase psychosis expression – as a function of the severity of comorbid psychopathology – in a dose–response fashion (Guloksuz et al. 2015) and further predicts subsequent persistence and need for care in those with baseline subthreshold psychotic experience (Henquet et al. 2004; Spauwen et al. 2004, 2006a , b ).

Instead of a binary model, the liability-threshold model (Gottesman & Shields, 1967), providing a basis to predict phenotypic outcome quantitatively by the cumulative risk load of genetic and environmental factors, might be advantageous in investigating psychosis expression lying on the same continuum with normality (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. The liability-threshold model, assuming a Gaussian distribution of a continuous liability in the general population, posits phenotypic outcome can be determined quantitatively by the combined effects of genetic load and environmental factors. If cumulative predisposition exceeds a certain threshold value, individual manifests the clinical syndrome.

Transdiagnostic psychosis manifestation

‘If we were to accept that the affective and schizophrenic manifestations of insanity are not in themselves the external expression of certain disease processes, but merely reveal those areas of our personality in which such processes take place, … [t]heir significance would then only reside in the fact that the schizophrenic illnesses affect different parts of our emotional life from the manic-depressive insanity.’ (Kraepelin, 1992)

A spectrum model of psychosis has testable implications (e.g. across the psychosis spectrum there are no qualitative differences in psychopathology, aetiology, treatment and outcome; there is movement over the spectrum and across dimensions within individuals), many of which are supported by the existing literature. Thus, similarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exceed their differences: phenomenological expression (van Os et al. 2000; Krabbendam et al. 2004; Kaymaz et al. 2007), cognitive functioning (Bora et al. 2009; Hill et al. 2013), genetic liability (Van Snellenberg & de Candia, 2009; Ritsner & Gottesman, 2011; Lee et al. 2013; van Os et al. 2017) and possible neuroanatomical correlates (Ivleva et al. 2013; Goodkind et al. 2015). Recent efforts to discriminate the DSM categories of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia using a multimodal set of biomarkers (cognition, evoked potentials, anti-saccadic eye movement and neuroimaging) failed to yield a desirable outcome (Tamminga et al. 2013). Clinical data suggest that bipolar disorder and schizophrenia lie at distant ends of a severity continuum, with schizoaffective being in the middle (Mancuso et al. 2015). Also, in help-seeking samples said to show ‘Clinical High Risk’, mood and anxiety disorders commonly coexist with sub-threshold psychotic symptoms, anticipating relatively unfavourable prognosis (Perlis et al. 2011; Wigman et al. 2014), questionably framed as ‘clinical transition’ (Fusar-Poli et al. 2014).

Similar to data in clinical populations, a significant, albeit relatively weaker, association between dimensions of affective disturbance and psychotic expression has been shown in general population studies (Krabbendam et al. 2004; van Rossum et al. 2011; Wigman et al. 2011). Epidemiological data further show that affective dysregulation and psychosis expression, with greater exposure to environmental risk factors, interact with each other, giving rise to a more severe outcome (Hanssen et al. 2005; Kaymaz et al. 2007; Wigman et al. 2012; Guloksuz et al. 2015; Isvoranu et al. 2016).

These findings might be more suggestive of a unitary model of psychosis. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia may well be different expressions (phenotypic presentations) of a substantially shared pathoaetiology, with varying outcomes due to disease modifiers (e.g. neurodevelopmental impairment), rather than two distinct entities with entirely diverse pathoaetiological processes (Murray et al. 2004). There are indeed various examples in medicine, such as multiple sclerosis, following distinct illness patterns (clinically isolated syndrome, relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive and primary progressive) with varying symptoms and outcomes but stemming from the same pathoaetiology (Confavreux & Vukusic, 2006; Lublin et al. 2014). Figure 3 illustrates illness course across different types of multiple sclerosis; in brackets, the DSM-IV diagnostic categories (Brief Psychotic Episode, Bipolar Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder and Schizophrenia) were given on the basis of the resemblance of putative illness course. Similar to multiple sclerosis, these different psychiatric conditions may reasonably belong to the same spectrum of illness. Accordingly, a recent line of work suggests the existence of a general transdiagnostic psychosis phenotype at both subclinical and clinical levels – coinciding across the psychosis spectrum: schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder – encompassing affective and non-affective symptoms, with five symptom dimensions (positive and negative symptoms, mania, depression and disorganization) disentangling the heterogeneity (Reininghaus et al. 2013, 2016; Shevlin et al. 2017). Originally, DSM5 was set up to encompass the model of psychotic disorders pertaining to a spectrum with transdiagnostic dimensions to allow for diagnosing heterogeneity; however, halfway the process, the idea of transdiagnostic dimensions was abandoned.

Fig. 3. Shows current multiple sclerosis classification based on disease progression. The colour red represents active disease; colour green represents remission. In brackets, the DSM-IV diagnostic categories were listed based on the resemblance of putative illness course. (a) Clinically Isolated Syndrome (Brief Psychotic Disorder), (b) Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (Bipolar Disorder), (c) Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (Schizophrenia), (d) Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (Schizoaffective Disorder).

From a researcher’s standpoint, an artificial categorization leads to a considerable loss of power and precision (Kraemer, 2007); from a clinician’s standpoint, categories based on illness course – regardless if they are different types of the same illness or not – are pragmatically necessary to determine treatment strategy. The category of schizophrenia-type psychosis, confined to the most severely ill patients with poor outcome, may be beneficial in approximating need for care, outcome, course and treatment (Kendell & Jablensky, 2003). However, mounting evidence suggests that a transdiagnostic dimensional approach, complementary to the clinical utility of the categorical approach, may provide in-depth information that covers different aspects of psychopathology beyond the borders of the modern operationalized criteria (Demjaha et al. 2009; Russo et al. 2014; van Os & Reininghaus, 2016).

One of the clinically-derived arguments for Kraepelinian dichotomy is that patients with bipolar disorder respond to lithium, whereas patients with non-affective psychosis do not. However, affective symptoms respond to lithium dimensionally, i.e. affective symptoms in the context of schizophrenia (i.e. schizo-affective disorder) also respond to lithium. In regard to this groundless notion of splitting and lumping of disorders on the basis of response to treatment, one may also declare the opposite, namely that these two phenotypes are identical based on the fact that they both respond to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics. In addition, cyclic illness course characterized by full remission between episodes predicts response far better than both categorical diagnoses (Tighe et al. 2011). There is no doubt that this represents very useful information for treating clinicians, but it is a reductionist fallacy to propose these observations as the reasoning behind splitting or unifying the two conditions.

A lack of diagnostic markers in psychiatry impedes an objective classification. In this regard, current artificial boundaries drift the field to a paradox by hindering efforts to develop novel diagnostic tools, essential for a classification system grounded in theory. Research practice should resist the temptation of clinical pragmatism and better move away from the dichotomous approach to set sail for an evidence-based diagnostic practice replacing the century-old construct. Indeed, this was the reasoning behind the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system, introduced by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (Cuthbert & Insel, 2010).

Schizophrenia is an obstacle to aspirational work of early intervention

‘There is no dark side of the moon really. Matter of fact it’s all dark. The only thing that makes it look light is the sun’ (in ‘Eclipse’, a song by Pink Floyd from the album: The Dark Side of the Moon)

Diagnostic manuals are like standard operating procedures: they simplify the decision-making process and guide clinicians to approximate diagnosis when valid and specific measures are not available or readily accessible to ascertain pathoaetiology. Therefore, objective diagnostic tools or lack thereof are critical for validating the diagnosis. At its best, check-listing diagnostic criteria improve reliability. Schizophrenia diagnosis has indeed ensured a high reliability, but as summarized above, its validity is debatable. Over the years, the weak validity and specificity of the schizophrenia construct have arisen as a critical methodological issue. As discussed previously, schizophrenia, along with other diagnostic categories, originally formulated to bring order to psychiatric taxonomy, has become reified over time and transformed into an impediment to research (Kendler, 2016a ).

Early intervention strategy became entangled in schizophrenia reification by hinging on the prototypic psychotic illness (schizophrenia) (Van Os & Delespaul, 2005; Fusar-Poli et al. 2014). In keeping with classification manuals, operationalized criteria have been applied to conceptualize the binary model of clinical high-risk state – prodromal stage – as a proxy for schizophrenia. The target population has been identified as individuals with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms or a family history of psychotic disorder.

Adopting a pragmatic model, early intervention efforts have primarily aimed to reduce false discovery rate by implementing a narrow description of clinical high-risk state restricted only to subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms in help-seeking individuals (Miller et al. 2003; Yung et al. 2005). The basic assumption of this indicated prevention, modelled after successful secondary prevention strategies in medicine, is that the detection of early warning symptoms of schizophrenia and subsequent intervention shall prevent subtle psychopathology from transitioning to a manifest clinical syndrome and ultimately reduce functional impairment (Van Os & Delespaul, 2005).

However, as discussed previously, epidemiological data from different populations have consistently demonstrated that a model based on psychosis expression per se – hallucinations and delusions at a sub-threshold level, which are not rare and often transient in the general population – overlooks the dynamic interplay between other elements of psychopathology and may, therefore, be insufficient to predict later psychopathology (Bentall & Beck, 2004; van Os, 2013). In accordance, over three-fourths of the at-risk population enrolled in The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study–2 had sought help for non-psychotic complaints prior to the onset of recognizable psychotic experiences (Woodberry et al. 2016). The initial intent of the prodromal psychosis concept, similar to its point of origin, schizophrenia, is to ascertain the group that benefits most from a therapeutic intervention, and thereby avoid unnecessary treatment (McGorry et al. 2002; McGlashan et al. 2003). However, this conceptualization possesses a danger of giving an implicit message to clinicians in the field that the at-risk population is the ‘pre-schizophrenia’ group and should be vigorously treated for that reason. Accordingly, a recent survey shows that clinicians follow a more conservative path than guidelines in deciding on dose reduction and discontinuation of antipsychotics after complete remission of the first psychotic episode (Thompson et al. 2016).

Emerging evidence from at-risk samples was a wake-up call to early intervention (Fusar-Poli et al. 2014; McGorry & Nelson, 2016): (i) The framework of ‘transition’ as an end result fails to explain the heterogeneity in clinical and functional outcome, (ii) Studies that control for ‘false transition’ representing natural fluctuation of an existing psychotic state find very low ‘transition’ rates (Morrison et al. 2012), (iii) An over-reliance on positive psychotic symptoms sets a self-limiting barrier to capture early expression of non-specific psychopathology, the severity of which is ‘marked’ but not ‘caused’ by attenuated psychosis, (iv) ‘Clinical High Risk’ criteria majorly identify individuals with diagnosed states of anxiety/depression and/or drug use who also display subtle psychotic experiences, which research has shown is a marker for – but not necessarily the cause of – relatively poor outcome (Perlis et al. 2011; Wigman et al. 2014; McAusland et al. 2015). Thus, early treatment of psychopathology (including treatment of subtle psychotic experiences), in states of anxiety/depression/drug use with a degree of psychosis admixture will naturally improve outcome; it does not seem necessary or valid, however, to claim that this effort represents ‘prevention of schizophrenia’ (Van Os & Guloksuz, 2017).

Evidently, the aspirational work of early intervention shall evolve by abandoning confusing terminology based on the ill-defined concept of schizophrenia. A universal early intervention strategy in psychiatry, as embedded in the Headspace initiative (McGorry et al. 2016), should be the ultimate – and likely more effective – goal.

The term ‘schizophrenia’

‘The way a word is used this year is its phenotype, but it has a deeply seated, immutable meaning, often hidden, which is the genotype.’ (Thomas, 1973)

The origin of the term ‘schizophrenia’ is Greek, meaning ‘split mind’. The metamorphosis of the term ‘schizophrenia’ has been striking: Schizophrenia is now not only a medical term, but also a physics term to describe the split personality of electrons (Chase, 2008) and a widely-used metaphor in economy for an unpredictable market.

The dark view of the current concept of schizophrenia – a distinct, genetic brain disease with a poor course – is also a key factor that further increases stigma and discrimination. Of all diagnostic categories, schizophrenia has been by far the most stigmatized mental condition that generates negative emotions: desperation, pity and fear (Lasalvia et al. 2015). Social media research has shown that ‘schizophrenia’ has been used inappropriately and non-medically with, as expected, the adjective form ‘schizophrenic’ being even more often negative (Joseph et al. 2015). Until the recent renaming of schizophrenia in Japan, these negative connotations had made clinicians largely reluctant to use the term in their communication with patients and their families (Takahashi et al. 2009). A similar pattern was also observed in other countries, such as Scotland (Allardyce et al. 2000). Although a simple renaming of schizophrenia may forestall its metaphorical use, a semantic revision without a reconceptualization may not be adequate to decrease stigma immediately (Lieberman & First, 2007; Koike et al. 2016). However, even more important than stigma may be internalised negative expectations associated with schizophrenia (Sullivan et al. 2015) and its pessimistic and unproven ‘devastating genetic brain disease’ description in the scientific literature (Sawa & Snyder, 2002). The recently formulated CHIME framework identifies ‘hope and optimism’ as one of the core conditions for personal recovery (Leamy et al. 2011). The question is to what degree mental health professionals, influenced by a long tradition of pessimistic and mystifying ‘schizo’ formulations of psychotic illness, provide an environment where patients are met with hope and optimism. More hopeful, and arguably scientifically more valid, alternatives, in the direction of a broad underlying susceptibility, have recently been proposed by those with lived experience of psychosis (George & Klijn, 2013). The CHIME framework shows a clear need to diagnose not only on the basis of symptoms, but also on the basis of where the person is in the process of personal recovery, starting with the phase of being completely overwhelmed by the illness, to living a meaningful life despite continuing mental challenges.

From rare mental disorder (schizophrenia) to psychosis spectrum disorders: dimensional assessment and multifactorial staging system

‘I expect to see the end of the concept of schizophrenia soon. Already the evidence that it is a discrete entity rather than just the severe end of psychosis has been fatally undermined.’ (Murray, 2017)

Like all other things, the way we think about mental illness is subject to a set of shared beliefs that can show change over time as a result of, for example, novel scientific insights or persistent calls for change from subgroups with deviant beliefs. In the area of mental health, the shared belief that mental distress comes as diagnosable discrete disease entities increasingly is co-existing with the view that mental suffering in reality represents a series of spectrum phenotypes. The coexistence of beliefs has found its way to the DSM5, in which the idea of mental illness as a spectrum phenotype was emphatically introduced in the areas of autism, substance use and – nearly – personality disorder, but, remarkably, not for psychotic disorder. Thus, in the DSM5 fact sheet of the American Psychiatric Association (2013), it is stated that ‘The symptoms of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder will fall on a continuum, with some individuals showing mild symptoms and others having much more severe symptoms. This spectrum will allow clinicians to account for the variations in symptoms and behaviours from person to person’. The introduction of this type of spectrum thinking is remarkable, given that until relatively recently, autism was considered a rare and uniformly severe, poor prognosis mental disorder.

Psychotic phenomena might well be conceptualized as a broad spectrum ranging from mild but persistent schizotypy to severe and recurrent schizophrenia. Indeed, the DSM5 psychosis workgroup attempted to introduce the idea of a spectrum in the structure and the ordering of the chapter, using the level, number and the duration of psychotic signs and symptoms to demarcate psychotic disorders from each other, ‘as a stepping-stone towards a more valid classification system’ (Heckers et al. 2013). A multimodal investigation of genetic susceptibility at different layers of environmental exposure using the unbiased multidimensional assessment of the psychosis spectrum, not confounded by current diagnostic categories, would contribute to a better understanding of psychotic phenomena. This ‘liberated’ strategy (Moncrieff & Middleton, 2015) has a greater probability of generating novel findings and discerning distinct pathological processes that will pave the way for a coherent theory-based classification. For example, if a neurodevelopmental factor predisposes to poor outcome in the psychosis spectrum, this association may not be detectable if the research population is limited to those with poor outcome who may be universally exposed to the neurodevelopmental factor in question. A thorough assessment of symptom dimensions stratified by risk (genetic and environmental) and resilience tiers allows for a true precision medicine in clinical practice. In fact, this is no different than what mental health professionals exercise routinely when they formulate a case.

Current health care practice demands clinicians to make quick decisions under pressure. Therefore, the primary concern with the multidimensional psychosis spectrum approach is whether it will be beneficial or burdensome in the hectic routine of clinical practice involving ever-increasing administrative demands and chronic imbalance between clinical load and mental health workforce across the world. Another argument against the utility of this approach is that clinical decisions are often binary not dimensional: admission v. discharge or treatment v. no treatment.

An additional obstacle stalling the implementation of the dimensional approach in routine practice is the general lack of data verifying its applicability in clinical settings. Therefore, the next step should be to design pragmatic clinical trials testing the utility of the dimensional spectrum approach. These studies may yield data to construct an empirical clinical course staging system that is established on a dimensional formulation of psychopathology across the psychosis spectrum. Clinicians in the field might find this system more familiar and handy in their daily operations: abstract, categorical and more importantly allowing for a bidirectional (up and down) shift between stages/types as opposed to the supposedly static diagnostic categories. The diagnostic stability and consistency of psychotic conditions identified based on current classifications are insufficient, mediocre even for the chronic, poor outcome fraction diagnosed as schizophrenia. Diagnostic switches are common because diagnostic classification often relies on a snapshot of psychopathology, which in reality varies over time. Nevertheless, there are other important longitudinal elements that carry a lot of weight with the clinician’s decision, such as the episodic nature – Kraepelin indeed prioritized cyclicity above other factors for discriminating manic-depressive insanity and dementia praecox.

The DSM schizophrenia concept has been criticized for: (i) overreliance on positive symptoms; (ii) negligence of affective, negative and cognitive dimensions; (iii) extraneous emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms and subtyping, which were both removed in the DSM5; and (iv) incompetency in overcoming heterogeneity (the polythetic structure of the operational criteria further complicating the matter). The value of the negative symptom domain for diagnosis has been consistently demonstrated in empirical studies, long before the release of DSM-III (Carpenter et al. 1973) – largely by means of predicting (albeit with relatively low predictive value) poor outcome, poor treatment response, and functional and cognitive impairment (Milev et al. 2005; Ventura et al. 2009). Over the years, the negative symptom domain has become an active area of investigation in psychosis research with hopes of reducing heterogeneity and developing targeted treatment (Kirkpatrick et al. 2006).

Taking the debate on negative symptoms further, the Maryland group conceived an appealing concept to reduce heterogeneity: the deficit subtype of schizophrenia, characterized by persistent primary negative symptoms that are not secondary to depression, mental retardation, positive psychotic symptoms and medication use (Carpenter et al. 1988). There exist some data – mainly from studies conducted by the same group that coined the deficit syndrome – suggesting a distinct disease entity: differences in clinical outcome, risk factors and biological parameters between deficit and non-deficit types of schizophrenia (Kirkpatrick & Galderisi, 2008).

However, several methodological issues require further deliberation before drawing a conclusion. First, it is extremely difficult to make a valid and reliable distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms, particularly in the context of enduring symptoms. Second, although the presence of persistent primary negative symptoms has been defined as the core inclusion criterion for deficit syndrome, the influence of exclusion criteria to rule out secondary negative symptoms should also be taken into account while interpreting findings. As a matter of fact, some of the distinct clinical features observed in deficit syndrome might have resulted from the exclusion criteria: lower rates of substance abuse, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and severe suspiciousness (Kirkpatrick et al. 2001). Therefore, even if deficit syndrome constitutes a distinct disease entity within schizophrenia; it is difficult to attribute biological and aetiological differences to enduring primary negative symptoms exclusively. If cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms are associated with the level of functional impairment, this lends further support to the suggestion that the staging strategy and multidimensional approach would work better than the current taxonomy with a fuzzy algorithm. In this regard, the flexible and integrated spectrum approach, employing a staging system for clinical practice and a multidimensional structure for research use, may provide us with the essential framework to elucidate these enmeshed issues giving rise to often frustrating heterogeneity.

The introduction of a staging system across the spectrum of psychosis would produce a durable strategy (McGorry & van Os, 2013). In modern medicine, staging systems are frequently revised in the light of accumulating evidence about pathoaetiology, technological advancements and progress in treatment. Until a true discovery, these modifications, taking place within the illness spectrum, will not lead to a synthetic reclassification of diagnosis with each revision – the diagnostic category of a patient may artificially change over time with each new release of the current classification systems, e.g. the rise and fall of schizoaffective disorder.

Given apparent flaws of schizophrenia, both complementary and alternative paradigms, bearing a resemblance to our speculations in the current article, have been debated for a long time (Strauss & Gift, 1977; Bentall et al. 1988; Brockington, 1992; Boteva & Lieberman, 2003; van Os, 2009; Keshavan et al. 2011). Despite a series of demands for reconceptualization, these scholarly communications (in particular, strategies for clinical implementation) have been stuck at the theoretical level. Given the call for a change coming from highly influential scholars, one might ask why these discussions failed to go beyond ‘Monday morning quarterbacking’.

There are likely various reasons for this lack of progress, but the most obvious and influential ones in order of importance may be: (i) the influence of the DSM stronghold with a monopoly mentality, killing the competition in advance by not giving them a foothold; (ii) the sunk cost fallacy or, despite clear lack of progress, to continue to cling to the concept, because an enormous amount of funding and time have been invested in understanding schizophrenia over a century.

The idea of schizophrenia as a distinct categorical entity has recently been contested by the release of the NIMH research initiative, the RDoC (Cuthbert & Insel, 2010); and the multidimensional approach slowly gaining a foothold in the DSM (Heckers et al. 2013). At last, these advances would generate most-needed funding to foster more research incorporating multidimensional assessment of transdiagnostic samples that would hopefully provide us with essential data for a reconceptualization along spectrum lines.

However, the current construct of schizophrenia still dominates the field as if there is no other reality without its borders, and therefore remains to be an obstruction, which stagnate the efforts to prudent and feasible solutions. Accordingly, limited data exist about how we may feed dimensional assessment into a staging system. For now, instead of repeating the mistake by proposing a radical shift towards a new framework offering unwarranted promises, we can modestly start with following the footsteps of the reconceptualization of autism spectrum disorder: a single umbrella disorder – psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) – with specifiers. Even this subtle revision will help the field to rethink psychosis without the borders of schizophrenia and therefore clear the way for a better conceptualization in the future.

This unifying approach, however, should not be interpreted as a refutation of likelihood existence of distinct diseases in the broad PSD – deconstruction will eventually lead to a more stable reconstruction. For now, the reconceptualization is merely acknowledging the limits of our knowledge about PSD. Also, the reconceptualization of PSD cannot be complete without a semantic revision – the term ‘schizophrenia’ should be abolished.

In his self-reflection, looking back at his prolific career spanning over 50 years, Carpenter states that his major regret is his failure to be bold enough in pressing the field for reconstructing schizophrenia (Carpenter, 2017). We can learn from the past and finally show some collective courage to open up the discussion of how we could replace the slowly dying schizophrenia concept.

Conclusion

Psychosis remains an enigma; despite intensive research, much remains to be elucidated in terms of aetiology, diagnosis and treatment. Given this state of affairs, perpetuating the diagnostic status quo has been the default to date. Furthermore, schizophrenia is a psychiatric tradition as much as a diagnosis, contributing to the identity of diagnosing professionals. In Japan and South Korea, change was perhaps easier as the concept of ‘splitting mind disease’ was imported from another part of the world, making replacement with a culturally more acceptable concept a viable option. In Europe, the concept of schizophrenia is associated with the origins of scientific psychiatry, something to be proud of, a symbol of progression. However, with the introduction of spectrum phenotypes in DSM5, and an increasingly vocal movement for change (George & Klijn, 2013; Henderson & Malhi, 2014; Lasalvia et al. 2015; Moncrieff & Middleton, 2015) the tipping point may have been reached. Just as schizophrenia was the last diagnosis to benefit from research linking to childhood adversity to adult mental health outcomes (Read & Bentall, 2012), so may it be the last to benefit from the advantages of a modern spectrum diagnostic approach. There is hope for schizophrenia.

Acknowledgements

SG and JvO would like to acknowledge the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program under grant agreement No. HEALTH-F2-2009-241909 (Project EU-GEI). Authors would like to thank Lotta-Katrin Pries and Ilgin Guloksuz for their help with designing the figures.

Declaration of Interest

None.

Summary box

  • With the introduction of spectrum phenotypes in DSM5, and an increasingly vocal movement for change, the tipping point may have been reached. Just as schizophrenia was the last diagnosis to benefit from research linking childhood adversity to adult mental health outcomes, so may it be the last to benefit from the advantages of a modern spectrum diagnostic approach.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia, described by diagnostic guidelines and later reified, has become detrimental to progress in mental health by confining research efforts to a constantly changing construct that does not exist in Nature.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia, subject to Berkson’s bias, represents only a minor fraction with the worst outcome of a much broader and under-researched spectrum phenotype, yet has come to represent everything ‘psychotic’ – even psychotic experiences in non-psychotic disorders (‘Ultra-High Risk’).

  • The current concept of schizophrenia overlooks evidence indicating that psychosis expression is continuous across the general population and can, therefore, be better explored using a quantitative dimensional approach than a dichotomous distinction between ill and healthy on the basis of arbitrary set points.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia is far from being specific, as evidenced by the significant overlap between schizophrenia and other diagnostic constructs, concerning treatment, phenomenological expression, genetic liability, molecular mediation and anatomical representation.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia, dictated by recent diagnostic manuals, is inadequate – even misleading at times – to convey an in-depth information to guide clinicians and patients in the decision-making process.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia, as the prototypic psychotic illness, sets a self-limiting barrier to aspirational work of early intervention.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia has led to the transformation of a medical term to a loaded layman’s term with various negative connotations.

  • The current concept of schizophrenia represents iatrogenic hopelessness (‘devastating genetic brain disease’), resulting in internalized negative expectations and undermining the CHIME framework guiding mental health services development.

 

This is not an article of mine, used by permission to be posted on here.

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Psychosis rates vary around the world.

Studies have indicated the incidence and prevalance  varies with latitudes.  Ireland, once, had a higher prevalance with schizophrenia, as indicated in the book “Stalking Irish Madness” where the author, Patrick Tracey, sought out for ancestral roots of his family history of schizophrenia.

Following is an article why psychosis, such as schizophrenia, exists in different geographical locations and population groups.

Read on this hyperlink: Psychosis rates vary significantly around the globe – scientists are trying to find out why

 

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Stoic’s Key to Peace of Mind: What can we learn from Seneca on anxiety?

“There are more things … likely to frighten us than there are to crush us; we suffer more often in imagination than in reality.”

Seneca.

“What I advise you to do is, not to be unhappy before the crisis comes; since it may be that the dangers before which you paled as if they were threatening you, will never come upon you; they certainly have not yet come.

Accordingly, some things torment us more than they ought; some torment us before they ought; and some torment us when they ought not to torment us at all. We are in the habit of exaggerating, or imagining, or anticipating, sorrow.”

 

This quote from Seneca must be for somebody like myself. Worrying about what comes next before the crisis comes. Anxiety building up.  To help rid this uneasiness, I have to be reminded ‘look for better things to come ahead.’  In other words, Don’t worry, Daniel, Be Happy.

 

Art by Catherine Lepange from ‘Thin Slices of Anxiety: Observations and Advice to Ease a Worried Mind.’

 

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Pre-crime solution.

Pre-crime solution.

Here is a proposition for our legislature: In the near future, in order to help in preventing a “future” violent crime from occurring , the DOJ/FBI establish “Pre-Crime” units across the country. Yes. I know it sounds like a science-fiction movie in an Orwellian world, especially from the film “Minority Report”.
If we were to use psychic “artificial intelligence” technology + the use of current video surveillance out in the streets, plazas, business parks, you name it, this would curb “futuristic” crimes from being committed before a commission of an act occurs.
A few years ago, without most of our knowledge, in both the UK and The United States, this AI technology was planned way before 9/11 —the usage of a “Pre-crime” program.

I.E. – Stop a perpetrator from doing a future crime; the intervention of grief counselors to potential criminals who use the internet for expressing suicidal tendencies/murderous rampages – red flag them in a sense at first. Also, in aiding out future victims whom they will stalk.

Keeping tabs on both the perpetrators and “future” victims.

It’s a Brave New World out there, or so, it should be.

 

https://www.scmp.com/tech/science-research/article/3004167/minority-report-style-crime-prevention-artificial

https://www.crimesolutions.gov/Programs.aspx

What do you all think about using modern day technology?

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Schizophrenia, a journey into the world of madness.

I thought I decided after so many years living with a mental illness to talk about it.  What I was diagnosed with back in 2012 is called what is known as paranoid schizophrenia, after being subjected to the illness the previous year, 2011. So…I will take a chance in writing about what I know about it.

Starting in the fall of 2011 while working as a volunteer at a local store in Sutter Creek, California, I started to be subdued to feeling of being paranoid, as though a thousand eyes were peeking in on me. A creepy feeling though I was being watched everywhere. I felt a sense of uneasiness.  My heart pulsated, breathing uncontrollable to the point of a sudden panic attack. And I had no prescription for anxiety. A blow to my sternum like a mule kicked me in that region. I really had a hard time breathing. Heavy sweating from my brow. I fucking ran outside in seeking relieve for air. Then all of a sudden I heard “whispering of echoing voices within my mind.

Everything then started to turn black, that I couldn’t really think straight, even outside in the receiving deck. I took deep breathes, inhale and exhale, all the meantime these “whispering”voices did not stop. “They ” were bouncing off the outside walls of the backside of the store, which made things worse. I fucking started to attempt to scream at “them.” After several minutes, I began to breath at ease. Those voices kept on “whispering”.  Then stopped…..

During the Christmas season 2011, I was back into action at the store volunteering when “whispering voices” began once again. I never once in my life, then, begin to fully grasp the idea whatever they were was a symptom of psychosis, processed in a illness called schizophrenia. I have heard about the term “schizophrenia” in the past , yet was not educated about it. Didn’t take time to research it.

The following spring,2012, those voices became worse. Question I didn’t bother to ask myself, “why didn’t I get help?” Was I stubborn to take any action like seeing a doctor. When I was seeing my PCP, those voices started again in the exam room. I didn’t tell the doc about the “voices”.  2 voices told me to hurt him….a sudden urge of violence swarmed within the mind. And I am not a violent person. “Beat him to death. Beat him to death.” I was told…..I just walked away.

 

Summer 2012

“They” came back as usual. This time I was instructed to become a foot patrol officer of the town. What the fuck? A flatfoot?  “They” said I would be famous ‘take out the trash’ and do your job. Further, If I refused, “they” would expose me to “everybody” else”. They said they were from the Gov’t New World Order, that prompt me check my phone lines to see I was bugged.  Days later, I went to a local pawn shop and purchased a bowie knife in arming myself.  And here I was without my SKS rifle, that I bought years ago for target shooting, but I sold the weapon to  a neighbor. Only armed with a cb radio and a knife.  The radio “they” told me stand by. I was listening to voices bouncing off the telephone lines and the dark sky as well the moon on a hot summer’s midnight.

I went patrolling out the neighborhood at night until 3 a.m the next morning, just walking around for a distant of 4 miles. I lost a lot of weight, because I refused to eat. I looked in the mirror and saw dark circles in my eyes. I only got a few hours of sleep.   I looked like shit. A few days later, a Deputy Sheriff officer was called to dispatch to my home. They said a concerned neighbor witness me walking around the neighborbood and decided to call the Sheriffs office to do a welfare check on me. More than once the same deputy officer came to my doorstep.  He brandished a flashlight and looked in my eyes to see if I was on drugs. Finally, He said, “next time we are called about you, I’ll have to take you in to a hospital in Sacramento.”I was not deterred about another call.

Some days later I was home working out, “the voices” literally told me the store I was volunteering at was videotaping me all along. The manager conspired with the New World Order to expose me. I joyrided a truck and in a very enraged mood sped down from Pine Grove to Sutter Creek. I didn’t care about breaking the speed limits. I passed just about every car in line ahead of me in a 8 mile stretch. The voices told me “to hurry up.”

By the time I got to to Sutter Creek, I dashed out of the car and raided the store, I fucking yelled out of profanity, screaming at the top of my lungs I would fuckiing kill everybody in the store if the manager didn’t stop videotaping me.I meant business, only unaware at that time, there were surveillance cams inside and out. I drove to the receiving dock and ran out and started to destroy furniture and sofas. I was like a wild lunatic speaking in tongues.

I left and sped down back to Pine Grove dripping in sweat, heart racing, and shallow breathing. I was encountered by a California Highway Patrol officer at my home. The manager called up the CHP office and reported a vandalism at the store. The truck’s owner at first decided to file charges against me for auto theft, but later refused. All I got now was a restraining order against me. The store manager also decided to press charges against me for ‘terror threat’ and ‘vandalism.’  All she told the officer was that I was a hard worker during my stint there. “THe voices” told me” way to go, Danny boy” you showed the world you have what it takes to kill.”kill’.  I still looked like shit as though I suffered long enough.

The CHP officer notified my family to urge me to seek a behavioral health doctor in Sutter Creek, and it could of got worse. I had no other choice but to comply or continue to torture myself unitentionally. So, I got the help I needed. Nearly after several months of squantering nearly a entire year with voices telling me things I should be doing things against my will.

Since, I am  medicated with anti-psychotic pills. Going to therapy sessions, and doing check-ins at NAMI Amador.

So ladies and gents, this is the beginning of my world of recovery.  I ask that you don’t wave a ‘lunatic’ attached to my name. Isn’t that called stigma? You are judging me. I, in turn won’t do the same.

 

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Immersed in Numb3rs.

Dreams. Remote Viewing?  Synchronicities. Numerology and the number 11.

All of these type of dreams or remote viewing  had taken place in a dream where it is fall and winter somewhere along the California Delta in repeated dreams in early July 2009. I see a crescent moon hovering the East. Christmas trees decorated with icicles beaming with glittering lights fill the neighborhood. Traces of an orange sunset in the western Pacific skyline. The time is about 5 P.M. or the 6 P.M. hour.

Me and some guys walk in the neighborhood. I am pacing, saying minimal, and these guys don’t know I am even walking in their presence. An econoline van primered finish picks us up heading towards 99 SB towards a city inside the Central Valley. Then into the Livermore valley on the I-580 freeway. The driver of the vehicle is obscured with only a partial facial recognition. He has a beard. He has a sharp nose. Maps of the Metro San Francisco Area and nearby regions is scattered all over the passenger seat when he hits the brakes. There is a red marker on the financial district marked x. We pull aside a storage unit. Back on the freeway we ditch the van on a foothill and torch the van. One of the occupants of the vehicle talks in a east coast accent. A green ammo box marked ‘Do Not Tamper’. There is a sense of peeping for hardware because we are on a industrial district.

There is a sense of peeping for hardware because we are on a industrial district.
Next what happens we are in another neighborhood. One of the guys, a teenage boy anxious prowls a fence looking for an entry inside a house.  I whistle at him to get down from a picket fence. Strange thing is that I am viewing him from the eyes of someone  who I am bearded, tall, muscle built, and they don’t see me as I am with them in progress. One of the people I am with has soiled black slimy fluid on his gloves and spattered on his face. The impression I get from the other guy who says nothing is he has a weapon, something of a caliber in his hand as he walks barely wounded, shuffling.
This happening might occur or did occur.

Dreams like this do have notions of illogical entanglements. Not too many times dreams/remote viewing like this does occur. Very seldom. I am convinced this RV or dream has nothing to do with me. I had not read a recent article of a bank robbery at the financial district in Frisco. What are the odds vs. chances?

I used to reside in the California Delta which helps me remember the highways. Like I mentioned, it was mid-summer ’09 and the dream scenes is during late fall or early winter. Intertwined scenes along the way makes it complex to solve in a puzzle.

-J and T
-Bay Area foothills
-radar
-cell phones
-escalator
-valley
-business park
-shopping malls
-suburban streets
-walnut trees
-floodlights
-man working on his vehicle
-woman
-apron
-number 10
-scissors
-bar

The most weirdest is the numbers: 11421224
First time I placed these side by side was 11:42 12-24 in the initial reaction as I awoke. It was not 11:42 nor was it December 24 because I got these numbers during summer at sunrise. Twelve incidences, the time would read 12:24. These numbers was not by accident, random.
Synchronicities? Numbers are dream archetypes. This is not the only time I became a recipient for such numbers. I had something like this before 9/11. Then, times during third eye projection was usually 2:11 and 2:15. From what I read on the number 211, from the affinity numerology website:

http://website-box.net/site/affinity-numerology.com

“It may be a reminder that teamwork, friends, and relationships (2) are necessary for leadership (1) to be effective and accepted.

Your name indicates that you have a deep desire to be in charge of large projects. Realize that to be in charge requires the consent of those under your direction.”

This is remote viewing seeing this from a distance within the mind  of these men in the dream involved in something that is going down. And if not, this entanglement is just a problem solving dream. Another possibility: I am telepathic into somebody’s dream log. Think I am making all of this up as I am go along??

11421224
Dates?
Times?
Serial ranking numbers?
Estate property?

11421224
November 21
11-22
November 22
11-24
November 24
12-1
December 1
12-11
December 11
12-12
December 12
12-14
December 14
12-21
December 21
12-22
December 22
12-24
December 24

1224 is a estate property found in the colonial states. 11421 is a serial rank#of a military officer. Just something I found that is not connected.

I had to ponder for quite some time racking up my brain repeating faster and faster. I does not make any sense by jotting down fast in speech. Could this be related to a profiled robbery-homicide case?
What a eerie feeling of heightened awareness crept up on me as to tell me something or somebody is watching me in a spooky way. I felt though a message told me to read the time. One summer during a landscaping job disposing yard clippings and wood scraps at a landfill waste site, I felt spooked, got inside the truck, cranking on the ignition switch. It was right there, a clue staring right at me: 12:42 from what I read on the digital clock inside the cab. 12:42

A bunch of numbers with 2 and 4 are coming in close and closer.

A set of numbers gathering in a synchronized pattern. Now what is one to do with such numbers? that is the question. the more I see numbers, there is a clue behind these numbers. Should this been an actual remote viewing, confirmation is required. Otherwise, these repeated dreams are just mere problem solving.

Remote Viewing can vary from the  realm of dreaming, or can be during awake, receiving information by a sender who has the details on where to find a target which the finder did not know in advance of the relayed information. If I was to peek around a location during viewing and describe all bits of vital information to the sender with accuracy then this is confirmed remote viewing. No second guess or else what I am seeing that is not on the correct information is wrong. A form of telepathy can be involved. Originally, remote viewing was a science project in quantum physics, non-local reality, that is to discover whether the mind is limited to the brain or timeless and space less. Now with reported precognitions gathered on the British Premonition Bureau, the mind is found not limited but reaches outwards around the universe. In 1972, cognitive researchers at Standford University allowed a DIA program to use psychic phenomenon for gathering covert psychic spies to eavesdrop on foreign agencies. race relationships with Soviets to arms race. Almost twenty-five years later, the Stargate Project had been disbanded and a small percent of the project has been classified to the public.
Could it be there is a message from the cosmos giving me a sign something big is yet to unravel that had taken place or is yet to come. My first name has significant meaning to dreams; my name is derived from a prophet a Persian, in the Old Testament who was a captive of the Babylonians and he was thrown in a lions den where he had dream like visions of the future. To correlate to this ancient dreamer, most of my life I had strange dreams. Just perhaps it was no mistake I was named after this prophet. I was predestined to be a recipient for numbers in dreams and while awake?

Another piece of fascination in numerology is 111. In the dream there is a crime that “might” be going down during Christmas season in California’s Central Valley. Just maybe these guys were part of a conspiracy, huger than a bank robbery. Sounds rather silly, but worth taking a look into. This should be robbery without such influence by numbers. 211 is the California penal code number for robbery. If this was a diabolical agenda on roughly around Christmas Eve, 111 days after this festival day is around the Passover and Easter in early April, depending on which calendar year. As we know, Passover and Easter varies from late March to early to mid April. 11:11 is a also a significant number to dark occultists. Occultists practice using numbers in achieving their crimes. That said does not mean everyone who keeps on seeing numbers in 11:11 are that, criminals. Illuminati of such Secret Societies plot out Illuminati “power numbers” of 11 and 13 in doing a diabolical agenda. An example in 9/11, a 911 day gap between the 9/11/01 attacks and the Madrid train bombings on 3/11/04; this numerology of 911 days was confirmed by the FBI. Then there was that averted Sears Tower attack on April 20,2004 having a numerology connection with the London Bombings on July 7,2005. In between those days were 444 days.

The Iranian Embassy siege lasted 444 days. Here is one: Between the July 7,2005 London Bombings and  June 6,2006=333 days. June 6,2006 is a diabolical meaning to the Mark Of The Beast=666. 666 Numerology, part of the dark spiritual 11:11. June 6,2006 is 666 if you were to eliminate the two century digits of the calendar year.
Aleister Crowley’s “Mark Of The Beast” 666 and his Qabalistic 777.
6/06/2006 – 6/6/6 – 6/6/6 = 666.
The London attacks July 7,2005
7/07/2005 – 7/7/2+0+0+5 – 7/7/7 = 777.
Illuminati terrorists use the number 11 to commit such global atrocities. The Illuminati believe they are in the bloodline of Cain and Lucifer as their First Father. They may even personally know their sacrificial victims. I’ve heard dark spiritualists in the Illuminati occult use the number 111 in fetal abductions; whether that number is involved in a huge way, how evil can anyone get. Three is an Illuminati occult number in representation of mock the Trinity. Out here in California a string of  missing women, many who were pregnant became an increasing alarming phenomenon still classified as victims fallen prey to a suspected serial killer who resided in a 80 mile radius from where the females lived. The vanishing of these same women went on in a five year period from 1999-2003. Most were found dead, some remain unaccounted. The FBI/DOJ has a ton of VICAP Violent Criminal Apprehension Program files on each case.

The number 111 is also significant in numerology of year, month, and day between the September 11,2001 attacks and The October 12, 2002 Bali Bombings in Indonesia. October 12, 2002 is  1 year, 1 month, and 1 day after September 11,2001. 111 are Mystic and Super Power Numbers in Occult Numerology. There is a interesting link between a Illuminati Bohemian Grove occult in the Santa Rosa Hitchhiker Murders. Documentary: DARK SECRETS: INSIDE BOHEMIAN GROVE The Bohemian Grove sanctuary located in Monte Rio outside of Guernerville in Sonoma County is a 2,700 acre Redwood resort for influential members of society in a get-together retreat engaging in binge drinking and participate in pagan ritual ceremonies that includes a plausible link to abducted children. In other areas: pedophilia, queer activity and a worst case possibly imagined: burning of human bodies. From this website a featured article entitled THE TRUTH ABOUT BOHEMIAN GROVE. Though an all male order, the only women allowed are prostitutes. Some of the hitchhiker murders have elements of the murder of runaway teens, suggested occult activity, and sexual assaults that seem tied with S&M fetish or sexual deviancy. See California Occult Murders and California Astrological Murders.

Others in seeking out numbers such as 11:11 in time attribute this number as a spiritual consciousness or a message from a Higher Self asking for the goodness of people.

Anyone else having the same experience with remote viewing/dreams + numbers are welcome to drop in a comment or two, and perhaps we can make a online repository on our dream numbers and what do they mean to us. Try to keep it clean without using insults in attempts to debunk these numbers, whether there is a coincidence or something meaningful.

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Phillip K. Dick’s paranoia futuristic world in Hollywood’s screen adaptation of Minority Report.

In the 2002 science-fiction( or lack for a better word, science faction-part fact, part fiction) flick ‘The Minority Report’, in a set future, 2054, not to far from this world, a special trio of mutated psychic warriors known as the “precogs” born with gifted precognition abilities to see the future, in which they had this capability to foresee crime happening in the near future aiding a elite police unit to apprehend the culprits before the act of murder “would” occur. The system is flawless. In order for this system, “Pre-crime” to operate perfectly is for seeing futuristic crimes, even when it means there is a flaw somewhere. It is a predetermined paradox.

Even the feeling of spite, malice, ill-will towards another human being without and or hesitation of taking a persons life in law is considered “premeditation” in real life. Can a person be accused of murder if there was no arrest? Out of 3 of these precogs, only one has a different premonition from the others, hence, is why the program was called “The Minority Report.” This particular precog has a dream of futuristic events that is more accurate than the other two, even when all three of these psychics operated in successfully help police stop a crime before it was to occur through the help of their infallible premonitions. The director of a “murder free” program knows a deadly truth that will send the innocent behind bars to allegedly secure a ‘crime free’ environment even when the fact there was police intervention before a crime was to take place moments before it was set to occur by altering the outcome by the future criminal accepting “choice.”

As seen in the first example in the film whereabouts a married man on his way to work suspects his spouse is having a extra-marital affair with another man. His suspicions is true: his wife is having an affair. He is in premeditation of murdering before hand both his spouse and her lover. The husband has already committed premeditation murder in his mind, but his own defense against the arresting officers is that he had no intentions of killing in spite he is caught with a pair of scissors in his hands. Premeditation seems quite evident. The question is that moments before his apprehension did he have time to think it through to make a free will based decision whether he was going to walk away or actually going to stab both his wife and the man she has an affair with. On the defense of the “Pre-Crime”unit , the precog who aided police is predetermined with such flawless psychic abilities that determines the fate of so-called futuristic criminals before there was crime that was not yet committed. And this psychic has been given a crucial role in the foundation and functioning of Pre-Crime.

The system is rigged from the start. A cover-up. Pre-Crime is based on public opinion in the overwhelming majority who favors the system. Since the public opinion favors Pre-Crime, the murder rate in the District of Columbia dropped very drastically by the use of the program since Pre-Crime was established six years before in the year 2048. In reality, the actual homicide rate dropped ‘zero’ percent. This leaves a paradox of how the system operates, because the would-be perpetrators are arrested, charged, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned for a crime they have not committed, just yet. Those behind bars in the future are most innocent, we will never know how many innocent condemned prisoners are wrongly imprisoned as such in reality as of today. Too many behind bars incarcerated of a crime they were formally accused of to begin with. Physical evidence is lack of. The system has flaws and is easily a paradox.

 

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Can we expand our journey into the deepest space of the mind?

Turn On Tune In Drop Out

All you had to do was turn on….open up to the idea of acid. With the entrance of tuning in, use it as a paradigm to zoom in that kaliedescope and open the vault to those hidden doors of consciousness.

We use about 10% of our brains daily, otherwise we all would get much tired being wired up with endless ideas.

Like a genie in a bottle profound mystical states of viewing the godhead buried within the deep regions of inner space is plausible.

LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide – LSD-25 – has been long theorized by a past scientific study to be similar to the flow of chemicals such as serotonin and dopamine found in the neurotransmitters secreted in the brain.

Does LSD affect your entire genetic system? No. Does it drive people into madness? Yes and No. Does it expand your mind? Yes.

Celebrated author Aldous Huxley explained this potent as well mescaline should only be used by the best and the brightest. Was he completely right about it? Timothy Leary somehow tried to convince U.S. Congress to pass a legislation for LSD, which was that it should be reasoning for anybody who wanted to experiment with acid, was compared to obtaining a drivers license to operated a combustible vehicle, except whereabouts this person would have to prove that he could drive a vehicle of consciousness if they could prove that they know how to operate it with “responsibility”, that is. People from the baby boom generation who are the living child bearers of us “Generation X” have attributed the vehicle that drove them to asylums was that LSD because they were not prepared or how to use it under proper guidance.

There was nothing found in the newspapers about a pleasant LSD experience, just the bad trips. The media circus did not want to cover the positive attributes, only exploiting the negative results especially when there was a story covered on somebody on LSD killed on a railroad track who appeared himself to be invincible by coming head on with a train. To most in the public eye, LSD was then as it is now unpatriotic. Back then using LSD in the 1960’s was very considered unpatriotic. In the government involvement with LSD, CIA covert ops were surreptitiously administered LSD in their drinks without any consent. PSYOPS. President Lyndon B. Johnson banned all drug experiments in the covert CIA MK-ULTRA program in 1967. In spite of this powerful ‘weapon of war’ once was manipulated by the cabal and there is a passage of dark effects of LSD: walls buckling into 3 dimensions and horrific hallucinations. Saint Anthony’s Fire – the feeling of your hands on fire was a result of digesting ergot, a diseased rye that is a component in making LSD.

“There is a inner reality to just more that meets the naked eye” – Timothy Leary. In a devisive debate over how much brain capacity does everyone use at least 10% of our brain and the remaining 90% for other areas. Had we use the complete our brains capacity, we do all of tend to forget about certain places, ideas, The brain has unlimited capacity to learn about everything there is to know. Poets and musicians attributed their creativity thanks to LSD. Religious experiences are deeply opened.

Drop Out.

In a society where the manipulation of prozac, valium, viagra, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana and chocolate as a drug itself is accepted; is there another space to fill with LSD? I think so. Should LSD be legal? Let it be, If it remains illegal,  think why it should or should not be legal. Hey! LSD is debatable.

For those who are sane should be able to use this psychedelic remedy with responsibilities in preparing for the consequences. Don’t let our leaders decide what should be good for all. With literature out there on LSD and with a click of a button on the super information highway you can find out about it before going on a trip. For a conversation, to begin with, try for 100 mcg; 500 mcg for a very vivid hallucination. Anything beyond…well explore for yourself, bear in mind, do research.

This is from my commentary regarding LSD.